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Gramsci 1891 - 1937 (46)

I'm a pessimist because of intelligence, but an optimist because of will.


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Antonio Gramsci was an Italian philosopher, writer and politician. Born in Sardinia on January 22, 1891, he was the fourth child of a family with 7 children; his father was civil servant, his mother knew to read and write and, in a population that 90% were illiterate; she taught her children. Antonio had health problems from childhood, a crooked spine, suffered from severe headaches and dizziness. He was interested in history and managed to get a small scholarship and go to Turin to study literature. While a student he became involved in politics and started writing articles for magazines and newspaper acquiring a unique personal style. He joined the Italian Socialist Party in 1914 and took an active part in the workers' occupation of factories in 1918. In 1919 he founded a newspaper for 'education, organization and mobilization of the working class".

In 1921, he was one of the initiators who form the Italian Communist Party. The following year he traveled to Moscow as the party's representative. He stayed away from Italy for 2 years; in his return he was elected MP. From this position he fought for the problems of the underdeveloped south but in 1926 Mussolini abolished democracy and declared the Communist Party illegal. Gramsci was arrested and sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment. In prison, he wrote the "Prison Notebooks" near 3000 handwritten pages with essays, articles and notes, which later established his reputation as one of the most important theorists and had a major influence on left-wing radicals in post-war Europe. His health deteriorated in prison and eventually died on 27 April 1937. A few days earlier he was released in order not to die in prison.

ANTONIO GRAMSCI, I hate the indifferent