Empire of GhanaThe Ghanaian Empire was created around 300 (unrelated to the modern Ghana, located 400 miles southeast), by the integration of many different tribes, including Verve, from North Africa. It became the biggest force in Sub-Saharan Africa, and at the time of its greatest extent (10th century) it included today's Sudan, Niger, Senegal, Mali and Mauritania. It was a beautiful, wealthy and rich in gold region, which had inherited the knowledge of ancient Egypt and Nubia. The Empire was becoming more and more powerful and influential thanks to its gold and political organization, and controlled commerce in the Sahara, however, the abundance of gold created envy in many other tribes. Eventually, the Almoravids from the north with constant attacks began to conquer more and more of its lands. Conversion to Islam had sparked further conflicts and finally the Ghanaian empire collapsed around 1200, with new kingdoms emerging in the region, such as the Empire of Mali, Benin and the kingdom of Assadi, one of the few kingdoms to show the strongest resistance against European invaders in the following centuries.
Nok CivilizationThe Nok culture was an early Iron Age organized society in the region of Central-West Africa, part of today's Nigeria. It was named by the archaeologists based on the village of Nok, where many statuettes made of terracotta were found. According to archaeologists they were at least 1500 years old. Iron was usually used for melting and forging to produce tools.
Kingdom of SaoThe culture of Sao flourished from the 6th century BC to the late 16th century A.D. in Central Africa. Sao lived in the south of Chad Lake, in the area that later became part of Cameroon and Chad. The findings from Sao show that they were skilled craftsmen, great in the processing of bronze, copper and iron. The findings from there include bronze sculptures, anthropomorphic statues and terracotta animals, coins, urns, household utensils, jeweler, well-decorated vases, and spears.
STATUE AND DWELLING OF SAO PEOPLE
Kingdom of CushSince 2000 BC, in the southern regions of southern Nubia (nowadays Sudan), the kingdom of Cush had started developing. It had been for centuries under the control of its northern neighbor, Egypt, although it had developed its own, rich and special culture. It had a complex administrative and religious system, and his economy was based on trading using ivory, ebony, incense, and slaves. Royal gifts, jeweler and furniture prove the wealth of the state. Renowned were their potters, who left us masterpieces behind. They were influenced by the Egyptians in the way of burial (they adopted pyramids and mummification), while the Egyptians followed their goldsmith's technique. Over a period of several hundred years, in three regions of Nova, about 255 pyramids were built to serve as tombs of the kings. Their pyramids, almost double the number of Egyptian pyramids, are smaller in size; their base does not exceed eight meters, their height varies from 6-30 meters and they are very steep in relation to the Egyptian’s. Most date back from 800-300 BC. Around 715 BC the Cush people had acquired so much power to conquer Egypt and keep it for a century under their sovereignty.
Kingdom of Axum (Or Aksum) In the 3rd century AD the civilization of the Kusites was in decline and the 350 invaded the neighboring kingdom of Axum (in the northeast of Epirus between the Red Sea and the Nile), destroyed the capital Meroni and enslaved the country. The Axum Empire became a major trading powerhouse with many wealthy cities and more importantly the capital of Axum, famous for its architecture and obelisks. The kingdom gradually used the name Ethiopia.
PYRAMIDS IN THE CAPITAL MEROH
Obelisk OBELISKS MADE BY PEOPLE OF AXUM