In 38 the roman emperor Caligula ordered the placement of roman statues in the Temple of Jerusalem and in synagogue, which resulted in Jew’s uprising with the destroying of statues and the burning of buildings. The Romans suppressed the insurrection and forced the Jews to gather in a region of Jerusalem where they could oversee them, thus creating the first known ghetto in history. For some years it has been impossible for the Jews to leave their neighborhood; if they dared, they were stoning, banging or throwing into arenas to fight to death. After Caligula's death, his successor Claudius allowed Jews to execute their old-fashioned customs and gradually they gained the freedom of moving everywhere.
MOSAIC FROM A SYNAGOGUE OF THE 5th CENTURY
In the period 66-70, riots broke out in Caesarea, which resulted in a revolutionary movement of Jews throughout Judea. The Romans reacted resolutely, they sent their legions and, in the 70, suppressed the rebellion and burned Jerusalem; they destroyed the temple of Solomon and captured a great number of Jews. Many others left Judea to save their lives. In Rome, to commemorate the triumphant, a parade with Jewish prisoners was organized and a triumphal arch was set up, depicting the Jewish symbol, the Menorah, to be transported by Roman soldiers.
THE TRIUMPHAL ARCH WITH THE TRANSFER OF MENORAH BY ROMANS
In 130 Emperor Hadrian travelled to Jerusalem and announced that he would rebuild the destroyed city as a pure Greek-Roman city with the name Aelia Capitolina and that the destroyed Temple would be rebuilt as the Temple of Olympian Zeus. The Jews were prepared for two years, their rebellion broke out in 132. The Romans sent great powers and repossessed it; they destroyed the fortress Betar where the Jewish fighters had resorted to and killed everyone of them. Hadrian took a series of harsh measures to eliminate the roots of Judaism, which in his opinion constituted to the occasion for the constant revolutions. Aelia Capitolina replaced Jerusalem, and in the courtyard of the former Judaic temple was mounted a statue of Olympian Zeus. It was forbidden any reference to the Torah and the Jewish calendar, while the sacred writings of Judaism were ritually burned upon the hill of the former Temple. The name of Judea was erased from all official Roman documents and replaced by the name Syria-Palestine as it was called by the Philistines, the traditional opponents of Jews. In Jerusalem, a Roman garrison was set up forbidding the entry to the Jews. The Jewish people lost their national and religious center; many viewed it as the real beginning of the Jews' dispersion